Published: 13-07-2017

Format: Hardback

Edition: 1st

Extent: 256

ISBN: 9781472911391

Imprint: Bloomsbury Sigma

Illustrations: 8pp colour plate section

Dimensions: 216 x 135mm

Pig/Pork would have not been possible without the research carried out, and the publications written by all those listed below. I am greatly indebted to all of them for studying and writing about the many and fascinating aspects of the pig world, and I hope I have done their findings justice in this book.



(hardback edition – by chapter/page)






p.12 - My PhD on what people were eating in southern Croatia about 18,000 years ago: Spry-Marqués, V. P. 2012. The Adriatic Plain: A Last Glacial Maximum Human Refugium? Epigravettian Subsistence Strategies at the Site of Vela Spila, Korčula (Croatia). Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Cambridge.


p.15 - Taxonomically speaking, wild boar and domestic pigs belong to the Suidae family: Frantz, L., Meijaard, E., Gongora, J., Haile, J., Groenen, M.A.M. and Larson, G. 2016. The evolution of Suidae. Annual Review of Animal Biosciences 4: 61–85.


p.15 - The Babyrousinae, or ‘ pig-deer ’: Watson, L. 2004. The Whole Hog: Exploring the Extraordinary Potential of Pigs. London: Profile Books Ltd.


p.15 - The babirusa carry these upper teeth in the middle of the face and not in the mouth: MacKinnon, J.1981. The structure and function of the tusks of babirusa. Mammal Review 11: 37–40 | Naish, D. 2010. Babirusas can get impaled by their own teeth: that most sought-after of objects does exist! (babirusas, part VIII). Science Blogs - Tetrapod Zoology, [blog] 8 March. Available at: http://scienceblogs.com/tetrapodzoology/2010/03/08/babirusa-impales-own-head/


p.16 - Another way in which the babirusa is not your typical suid has to do with how its stomach is constructed: Leus, K., Goodall, G.P. and Macdonald, A.A. 1999. Anatomy and histology of the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) stomach. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie 322(12): 1081–1092.


p.16–17 - Even though five pairs of the babirusa’s autosomes (numbers 6, 12, 14, 15 and 17) have no direct equivalents in any of the Sus species: Oliver, W.L.R. 1993. The Babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa), in Macdonald, A.A. 1993. Pigs, Peccaries and Hippos Status Survey and Action Plan. Gland: IUCN.


p.17 - A male Babyrousa babyrousa and a female Sus scrofa domesticus did unexpectedly mate and produce five off spring at Copenhagen Zoo in 2006: ZooChat. 2008. Copenhagen Zoo - Babirusa/pig hybrids [online]. Available at: https://www.zoochat.com/community/media/copenhagen-zoo-babirusa-pig-hybrids.2311


p.17–19 - Hylochoerus, Phacochoerus, Potamochoerus, Porcula: Watson, L. 2004. The Whole Hog: Exploring the Extraordinary Potential of Pigs. London: Profile Books Ltd and references therein.


p.19 - The pygmy hog is now only found in north-east India and is classified as a critically endangered species: Menon, V. 2014. Indian Mammals: A Field Guide. Gurgaon: Hachette.


p.19–20 - The Sus genus: Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2017. The Animal Diversity Web [online]. Available at: http://animaldiversity.org


p.20 - The decline in its numbers was due to commercial logging activities, agricultural expansion and hunting pressure: Oliver, W. 2008. Sus cebifrons. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T21175A9244915 [online] Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T21175A9244915.en






p.25 - The cave site of Kalamakia on the Mani peninsula in southern Greece: Harvati, K., Darlas, A., Bailey, S.E., Rein, T.R., El Zaatari, S., Fiorenza, L., Kullmer, O. and Psathi, E. 2013. New Neanderthal remains from Mani peninsula, southern Greece: The Kalamakia Middle Paleolithic cave site. Journal of Human Evolution 64(6): 486–499.


p.25 - Kebara Cave in Israel: Speth, J.D., Meignen, L., Bar-Yosef, O. and Goldberg, P. 2012. Spatial organization of Middle Paleolithic occupation X in Kebara Cave (Israel): Concentrations of animal bones. Quaternary International 247: 85–102.


p.25 - Medzhibozh 1 in western Ukraine: Stepanchuk, V.N. and Moigne, A.-M. 2016. MIS 11-locality of Medzhibozh, Ukraine: Archaeological and paleozoological evidence. Quaternary International 409 - Special Issue: The Hoslteinian period in Europe (MIS 11–9) Part B: 241–254.


p.25 - Terra Amata and Orgnac 3 in France: Moigne, A-M., Valensi, P., Auguste, P., García-Solano, J., Tuffreau, A., Lamotte, A., Barroso, C. and Moncel, M-H. 2016. Bone retouchers from Lower Palaeolithic sites: Terra Amata, Orgnac 3, Cagny-l'Epinette and Cueva del Angel. Quaternary International 409 - Special Issue: The Hoslteinian period in Europe (MIS 11-9) Part B: 195–212 | Moncel, M-H., Moigne, A-M. and Combier, J. 2005. Pre-Neandertal behaviour during isotopic stage 9 and the beginning of stage 8. New data concerning fauna and lithics in the different occupation levels of orgnac 3 (Ardèche, South-East France): Occupation types. Journal of Archaeological Science 32 (9): 1283–1301.


p.27 - Jōmon site of Kirigaoka: Naumann, N. 2000. Japanese Prehistory: The Material and Spiritual Culture of the Jōmon Period. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.


p. 27 - The existence of such ancient traps: Sato, H. 2012. Late Pleistocene trap-pit hunting in the Japanese Archipelago. Quaternary International 248: 43–55.


p.27 (footnote) - Jōmon in Japanese means cord-impressed: Hall, M. 2011. The Jōmon foragers of coastal Japan, in Andrea, A.J. (ed.), The World History Encyclopedia - Volume Two - Era 1: Beginnings of Human Society. Oxford: ABC-CLIO, pp. 146–148.


p.28 - Wild boar can run as fast as 48km/h (30mi/h): Thatcher, H. 2013. Wild boars and Teacup Pigs. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group.


p.28 - Triggered much discussion among Japanese scholars of the period as to whether or not this represents the earliest evidence of pig husbandry in Japan: Hongo, H., Anezaki, T., Yamazaki, K. Takahashi, O. & Sugawara, H. 2007. Hunting or management? The status of Sus in the Jomon Period, Japan, in Albarella, U., Dobney, K. and Ervynck, A. (eds), Pigs and Humans: 10,000 Years of Interaction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 109–130.


p.29 - Altamira studied by the French archaeologist Henri Breuil in 1953: Obermaier, H. and Breuil, H. 1935. The Cave of Altamira at Santillana del Mar, Spain. Madrid: Tipografía de Archivos.


p.30 - Freeman argued further that the figures were clearly bison and not suids, because wild boars are ‘somewhat out of place in the Altamira assemblage’ (1987: 81): Freeman, L.G. 1987. Altamira Revisited. Chicago: Institute for Prehistoric Investigation.


p.30 - Breuil’s original interpretations were defended by archaeologist Patricia Rice: Rice, P.C. 1992. The boars from Altamira: Solving an identity crisis. Papers from the Institute of Archaeology 3: 23–29.


p.31 - A paper in Nature by a team of researchers from Indonesia and Australia, which presented evidence from Sulawesi (Indonesia) of what was potentially an even older artistic representation of an animal: Aubert, M., Brumm, A., Ramli, M., Sutikna, T., Saptomo, E.W., Hakim, B., Morwood, M.J., van den Bergh, G.D., Kinsley, L. and Dosseto, A. 2014. Pleistocene cave art from Sulawesi, Indonesia. Nature 514: 223–227.


p.33 - Wild boar consumption at the site of Les Cabônes in the Jura region, France: Leduc, C., Bridault, A. and Cupillard, C. 2015. Wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) hunting and exploitation strategies during the Mesolithic at Les Cabônes (Ranchot Jura, France), layer 3. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 2: 473–484.


p.34 - Grotta Paglicci in southern Italy: Borgia, V., Boschin, F. and Ronchitelli, A. 2016. Bone and antler working at Grotta Paglicci (Rignano Garganico, Foggia, southern Italy). Quaternary International 403: 23–39.


p.35 - The Turkish cave site of Üçağızlı I: University of Arizona. 2007. Bone technology at Üçağızlı Cave, Turkey [online]. Available at: http://web.arizona.edu/~hatayup/bonetech.htm


p.35 - The Central Russian Plain: Soffer, O. 1985. The Upper Paleolithic of the Central Russian Plain. London: Academic Press.


p.35 - Swedish Mesolithic cemetery of Skateholm II: Larsson, L. 1988. Late Mesolithic settlements and cemeteries at Skateholm, southern Sweden, in Bonsall, C. (ed.), The Mesolithic in Europe: Papers presented at the Third International Symposium, Edinburgh: John Donald Publisher, pp. 367–378.


p.36 - Wild boar first arrived in Britain and Ireland at the start of the Mesolithic: Putman, R. 2010. Ungulates and their management in Great Britain and Ireland, in Apollonio, M., Andersen, R. and Putman, R. (eds), European Ungulates and their Management in the 21st Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 129–164 | National Museum Wales. 2007. After the Ice Age… [online]. Available at: https://museum.wales/articles/2007-05-11/After-the-Ice-Age/ | Yalden, D.W. 1999. The History of British Mammals. London: T. & A.D. Poyser.


p.37 - Not until the 1990s were they once again seen roaming freely in England, in areas such as Dorset and Herefordshire: Bathurst, B. 2012. Here comes trouble: the return of the wild boar to Britain. The Observer: Wildlife [online] 4 March. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2012/mar/04/trouble-return-wild-boar-britain


p.38 - 2013 paper published in Nature Communications by biochemist and archaeologist Professor Krause-Kyora and his colleagues from the University of Kiel in Germany: Krause-Kyora, B., Makarewicz, C., Evin, A., Flink, L.G., Dobney, K., Larson, G., Hartz, S., Schreiber, S., von Carnap-Bornheim, C., von Wurmb-Schwark, N. and Nebel, A. 2013. Use of domesticated pigs by Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in northwestern Europe. Nature Communications 4: 1–7.


p.39 - These ‘ Mesolithic domestication ’ claims were challenged a year later by archaeology professor Peter Rowley-Conwy from Durham University in the UK and Dr Melinda Zeder from the Department of Anthropology at the US’s Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History: Rowley-Conwy, P. and Zeder, M. 2014. Mesolithic domestic pigs at Rosenhof–or wild boar? A critical re-appraisal of ancient DNA and geometric morphometrics. World Archaeology 46(5): 813–824 | Evin, A., Girdland Flink, L., Krause-Kyora, B., Makarewicz, C., Hartz, S., Schreiber, S., von Wurmb-Schwark, N., Nebel, A., von Carnap-Bornheim, C., Larson, G. and Dobney, K. 2014. Exploring the complexity of domestication: A response to Rowley-Conwy and Zeder. World Archaeology 46(5): 825–834.


p.40 - Wild boar and red wine stew by Anna Colquhoun of Culinary Anthropologist: Available at: http://www.culinaryanthropologist.org/old/recipe%20pdfs/Wild%20boar%20and%20teran%20stew.pdf


p.42 - Special train service, Shishi Nabe Ressha,in Japan: Japan Info. 2016. Feeling cold? Here are 4 Japanese “Flower” hot pots perfect for winter [online]. Available at: http://jpninfo.com/63609


p.44 - Tests carried out by the Saxon federal government found that one in three of its wild boar gave such high radioactive readings that they were not to be consumed by humans: Huggler, J. 2014. Radioactive wild boar roaming the forests of Germany. The Telegraph [online] 1 September. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/germany/11068298/Radioactive-wild-boar-roaming-the-forests-of-Germany.html






p.47 - The study of the worldwide phylogeography of wild boar: Larson, G., Dobney, K., Albarella, U., Fang, M., Matisoo-Smith, E., Robins, J., Lowden, S., Finlayson, H., Brand, T., Willerslev, E. and Rowley-Conwy, P. 2005. Worldwide phylogeography of wild boar reveals multiple centers of pig domestication. Science 307(5715): 1618–1621.


p.48 - It turned out that although the genetic study was neat, it was in fact showing something slightly different from what Larson and his colleagues first thought it did: Yale University. 2016. Pig Out Panel 1: Porcine Pre-History: Domestication [video online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6i90ZUKOHa4


p.50–51: As discussed by archaeologist Dr Melinda Zeder in her ‘Pathways to domestication’ (2012) paper: Zeder, M.A. 2012. Nine pathways to animal domestication, in Gepts, P., Famula, T.R., Bettinger, R.L. et al. (eds), Biodiversity in Agriculture: Domestication, Evolution, and Sustainability. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 227–259.


p.52 - Dental formula for Suidae: Hilllson, S. 2005. Teeth. Second edition. Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


p.52 - Many studies carried out during the past century showed that the teeth of domesticates in Neolithic contexts were shorter that those recovered from Mesolithic levels: Evin, A., Cucchi, T., Cardini, A., Strand Vidarsdottir, U., Larson, G. and Dobney, K. 2013. The long and winding road: identifying pig domestication through molar size and shape. Journal of Archaeological Science 40(1): 735–743.


p.53 - The domestication of the pigs at Çayönü Tepesi came about via a ‘commensal pathway’: Ervynck, A., Dobney, K., Hongo, H. and Meadow, R. 2001. Born free? New evidence for the status of ‘Sus scrofa’ at Neolithic Çayönü Tepesi (Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey). Paléorient 27(2): 47–73.


p.53 - This commensal pathway is not, however, the most common domestication route: Zeder, M.A. 2012. Nine pathways to animal domestication, in Gepts, P., Famula, T.R., Bettinger, R.L. et al. (eds), Biodiversity in Agriculture: Domestication, Evolution, and Sustainability. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 227–259.


p.54 - A kind of mixture of the commensal and prey pathways is what appears to have taken place at Hallan Çemi: Peasnall, B.L., Redding, R.W., Nesbitt, R.M. and Rosenberg, M. 1998. Hallan Çemi, pig husbandry, and post- Pleistocene adaptations along the Taurus-Zagros Arc (Turkey). Paléorient 24(1): 25–41.


p.54 - The site of Akrotiri Aetokremnos: Vigne, J-D., Zazzo, A., Saliege, J-F., Poplin, F., Guilaine, J. and Simmons, A. 2009. Pre-Neolithic wild boar management and introduction to Cyprus more than 11,400 years ago. PNAS 106 (38): 16135–16138.


p.55 - Due to the island’s isolation, until the end of the Pleistocene it was home to a small number of species: van der Geer, A., Lyras, G., de Vos, J. and Dermitzakis, M. 2010. Cyprus Pleistocene Fauna: Evolution of Island Mammals: Adaptation and Extinction of Placental Mammals on Islands. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.


p.56 - The ‘island effect’, or ‘Foster’s rule’: Foster, J.B. 1964. The evolution of mammals on islands. Nature 202 (4929): 234–235.


p.57 - The site of Zengpiyan in Guangxi Province: Jing, Y. and Flad, R.K. 2002. Pig domestication in ancient China. Antiquity 76(293): 724–732.


p.59 - The Early Neolithic site of Jiahu in Henan Province: Cucchi, T., Hulme-Beaman, A., Yuan, J. and Dobney, K. 2011. Early Neolithic pig domestication at Jiahu, Henan Province, China: Clues from molar shape analyses using geometric morphometric approaches. Journal of Archaeological Science 38(1): 11–22.


p.59 - The modern Mandarin character for family/home ( 家 , jia ) is represented by a piggie inside a house: Cucchi T., Dai, L., Balasse, M., Zhao, C., Gao, J., Hu, Y., Yuan, J. and Vigne, J-D. 2016. Social complexification and pig (Sus scrofa) husbandry in ancient China: A combined geometric morphometric and isotopic approach. PLoS ONE 11(7): e0158523.


p.60 - Regular shipments of frozen and fresh British pig semen to be delivered to Beijing: Hope, C. 2013. Britain’s multimillion pound deal to ship pig semen to China. The Telegraph [online] 4 December. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/china-business/10493701/Britains-multimillion-pound-deal-to-ship-pig-semen-to-China.html


p.61 - In 2007 Larson, together with other colleagues, published a new genetics study: Larson, G., Albarella, U., Dobney, K., Rowley-Conwy, P., Schibler, J., Tresset, A., Vigne, J-D., Edwards, C.J., Schlumbaum, A., Dinu, A., Bălăçsescu, A., Dolman, G., Tagliacozzo, A., Manaseryan, N., Miracle, P., Van Wijngaarden-Bakker, L., Masseti, M., Bradley, D.G. and Cooper, A. 2007. Ancient DNA, pig domestication, and the spread of the Neolithic into Europe. PNAS 104(39): 15276–15281.


p.62 - A 2015 study published in Nature Genetics: Frantz, L.A.F., Schraiber, J.G., Madsen, O., Megens, H-J., Cagan, A., Bosse, M., Paudel, Y., Crooijmans, R.P.M.A., Larson, G. and Groenen, M.A.M. 2015. Evidence of long-term gene flow and selection during domestication from analyses of Eurasian wild and domestic pig genomes. Nature Genetics 47(10): 1141–1149 | Pennisi, E. 2015. The taming of the pig took some wild turns. Science Magazine [online]. Available at: http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/08/taming-pig-took-some-wild-turns


p.63 - Speaking at the Pig Out conference in Yale: Yale University. 2016. Pig Out Panel 1: Porcine Pre-History: Domestication [video online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6i90ZUKOHa4


p.63–64 - Pork afelia by George Psaria, and Vicki Psarias of Honestmum.com: Available at: http://honestmum.com/pork-with-wine-and-coriander-afelia


p.63–64 - History of afelia: Mallos, T. 2007. The Complete Middle East Cookbook. North Clarendon: Tuttle Publishing.


p. 64 - The oldest find of coriander seeds comes from the Neolithic cave site of Nahal Hemar in Israel: Diederichsen, A. 1996. Coriander: Coriandrum satifum L. Rome and Gatersleben: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.






p.68 - According to the Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP): More information about WRAP’s mission can be found here: http://www.wrap.org.uk/about-us/about


p.68 - US aviation and marine transportation combined are responsible for approximately 5 per cent of total greenhouse emissions: McCollum, D., Gould, G. and Greene, D. 2009. Greenhouse Gas Emission from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies. Solutions White Paper Series. Arlington: Pew Center on Global Climate Change.


p. 69 - During the Second World War the horse stables in Hyde Park were turned into pens for pigs: Stuart, T. 2009. Waste: Uncovering the Global Food Scandal. London: Penguin.


p.69 - The 1980 Swine Health Protection Act, the purpose of which was to regulate the feeding of refuse to swine: Swine Health Protection Act -H.R. 6593 (96th). Washington: Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress. Available at: https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/96/hr6593/text


p.69 - Consequently, in the US, before being fed to pigs food waste must be heat-treated to 100 °C (212 °F) for at least 30 minutes: Westendorf, M.L. and Myer, R.O. 2004. Feeding food wastes to swine. University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, EDIS.


p.70 - The reuse of a rather unexpected product: liquid geriatric formula: Harpster, H.W. 2000. Case studies in utilizing food-processing by-products as cattle and hog feed, in Westendorf, M.L. (ed.) Food Waste to Animal Feed. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, pp. 145–162.


p.70 - A study carried out as early as the mid-1950s at the University of Illinois, Urbana: Becker, D.E., Ullrey, D.E. and Terrill, S.W. 1954. A comparison of carbohydrates in a synthetic milk diet for the baby pig. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 48(1): 178–183.


p.72- Research carried out at the University of Florida by Professor Myer and his team: Myer, R.O., Brendemuhl, J.H. and Johnson, D.D. 2000. Dehydrated restaurant food waste as swine feed, in Westendorf, M.L. (ed.) Food Waste to Animal Feed. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, pp. 113–143.


p.73 - Citrus pulp has been dehydrated since the 1930s: Myer, R.O., Brendemuhl, J.H. and Johnson, D.D. 2000. Dehydrated restaurant food waste as swine feed, in Westendorf, M.L. (ed.) Food Waste to Animal Feed. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, pp. 113–143.


p.74 - Tends to produce soft fat in pigs: Berg, L. 2010. Pork industry seeks answers about fat quality. National Hog Farmer [online] 15 February. Available at: http://www.nationalhogfarmer.com/marketing/strategies/farming_industry_seeks_fat


p.74 - As part of research on HIV-1 and HTLV-1: Balestrieri, E., Pizzimenti, F., Ferlazzo, A., Giofrè, S.V., Iannazzo, D., Piperno, A., Romeo, R., Chiacchio, M.A., Mastino, A., Macchi, B. 2011. Antiviral activity of seed extract from Citrus bergamia towards human retroviruses. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 19(6): 2084–2089.


p.74 - Limonin has also been shown to reduce the reproduction of colon cancer cells and is being tested as an anti-obesity agent: Chidambara Murthy, K.N., Jayaprakasha, G.K., Kumar, V., Rathore, K.S. and Patil, B.S. 2011. Citrus limonin and its glucoside inhibit colon adenocarcinoma cell proliferation through apoptosis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59(6): 2314–2323 | Ono, E., Inoue, J., Hashidume, T., Shimizu, M. and Sato, R. Anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects of the dietary citrus limonoid nomilin in mice fed a high-fat diet. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 410(3): 677–681.


p.74 - The Pig Idea: Information about this campaign can be found here: http://www.thepigidea.org


p.75 - In Brazil an average of 19,500km2 (12,116mi ) of tropical rainforest were cleared every year: Boucher, D., Roquemore, S. and Fitzhugh, E. 2013. Brazil’s success in reducing deforestation. Tropical Conservation Science 6(3): 426–445.


p.75 - The surface area of Great Britain: UN System-Wide Earthwatch. 1998. Islands by land area. United Nations Environment Programme – Islands. [online] Available at: http://islands.unep.ch/Tiarea.htm


p.76 - Research published in 2016 by food-security expert and veterinarian Erasmus zu Ermgassen and his colleagues: zu Ermgassen, E.K.H.J., Phalan, B., Green, R., and Balmford, A. 2016. Reducing the land use of EU pork production: where there's a swill, there's a way. Food Policy 58: 35–48.


p.77 - The National Pig Association (NPA): National Pig Association. 2013. NPA position on feeding ‘waste food’ to pigs. Warwickshire: National Pig Association.


p.79 - Several pigs at the Cheale Meats abattoir in Little Warley, Essex: BBC. 2011. Foot-and-mouth outbreak of 2001. BBC News [online] 18 February. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-12483017


p.80 - Ibéricos (‘Iberians’) are a breed native to the Iberian Peninsula: Díaz Yubero, I. 2013. Gastronomía del Cerdo Ibérico: El Mito, la Cocina… y Hasta sus Andares. Madrid: Yeguada Marqués S.L.


p.82 - This year-round reproduction is unusual among polytocous mammals: Glover, T. Mating Males: An Evolutionary Perspective on Mammalian Reproduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


p.83 - ‘Gestation crates’: Jones, R. 2001. Farrowing and lactation in the sow and gilt, The Pig Site [online] 1 January. Available at: http://www.thepigsite.com/articles/1101/farrowing-and-lactation-in-the-sow-and-gilt


p.84 - Studies have shown that some sows are more receptive than others to these cries for help: Blomberg, M. 2010. Maternal Behaviour in Pigs and its Relation to Piglet Performance Survival. Unpublished undergraduate dissertation, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.


p.85 - Cambridge University researcher Dr Mark Holmes: Hadjirin, N.F., Lay, E.M., Paterson, G.K., Harrison, E.M., Peacock, S.J., Parkhill, J., Zadoks and Holmes, M.A. 2015. Detection of livestock-associated meticilling-resistant staphylococcus aureus CC398 in retail pork, United Kingdom, February 2015. Eurosurveillance 20(24): 1–4.


p.86 – Professor Cecil Forsberg and his team at the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada: Golovan, S.P., Meidinger, R.G., Ajakaiye, A., Cottrill, M., Wiederkehr, M.Z., Barney, D.J., Plante, C., Pollard, J.W., Fan, M.Z., Hayes, M.A., Laursen, J, Hjorth, J.P, Hacker, R.R., Phillips, J.P. and Forsberg, C.W.. 2001. Pigs expressing salivary phytase produce low-phosphorus manure. Nature Biotechnology 19(8): 741–745.


p.87 - Based on an average of 128g (footnote): Rose, C., Parker, A., Jefferson, B. and Cartmell, E. 2015. The characterization of feces and urine: A review of the literature to inform advanced treatment technology. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 45: 1827–1879.


p.88 - Back in 1995 a manure lagoon in North Carolina: Mizelle, B. 2011. Pig. London: Reaktion Books.


p.88 - The worst was feared following Hurricane Matthew in 2016: Johnson, D.M. 2016. Hog lagoons in North Carolina, after Hurricane Matthew, The New York Times Opinion Pages [online] 4 November. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/05/opinion/hog-lagoons-in-north-carolina-after-hurricane-matthew.html?_r=1 | Zhang, S. 2016. North Carolina's floods threaten to unleash lagoons of pig poop, The Atlantic [online] 12 October. Available at: https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2016/10/north-carolina-floods-threaten-to-unleash-lagoons-of-pig-poop/503828


p.88 - Legislation passed in 2007: Session Law 2007–397 Senate Bill 3. Raleigh, North Carolina: General Assembly of North Carolina, Session 2007. Available at: http://www.ncga.state.nc.us/Sessions/2007/Bills/Senate/PDF/S3v6.pdf.


p.89 - The company made its first announcement in March 2016: Duke Energy. 2016. Pork power gets new meaning with Duke Energy deal in N.C., Duke Energy News Center [online] 21 March. Available at: https://news.duke-energy.com/releases/pork-power-gets-new-meaning-with-duke-energy-deal-in-n-c | Fehrenbacher. K. 2016. Why this power company is making energy from pig poo, Fortune [online] 24 May. Available at: http://fortune.com/2016/05/24/duke-energy-pig-power


p. 91 - ‘Taronja de llavar budells ’ or ‘ taronja de porc’: Valencia Bonita. 2015. La naranja valenciana: Su origen y los inicios de la exportación, Valencia Bonita [online] 21 December. Available at: http://valenciabonita.es/2015/12/21/la-naranja-valenciana-su-origen-y-los-inicios-de-la-exportacion


p.92 - Pig testicles (criadillas) in sauce (Spain). Original recipe by Mar Izvaz of Mi Bloguico de Cocina: Available at: http://mibloguicodecocina.blogspot.co.uk/2013/05/criadillas-en-salsa.html






p.95 - Scientists from the Department of Animal Science and Technology at the National Taiwan University had bred three pigs that glowed green in the dark: Hogg, C. 2006. Taiwan breeds green glowing pigs. BBC News [online] 12 January. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/4605202.stm


p.95–98 - Osamu Shimomura, a Japanese organic chemist: Kauffman, G.B. and Adloff, J-P. 2009. The 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry - Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie, and Roger Y. Tsien: The Green Fluorescent Protein. The Chemical Educator 14: 70–78 | Shimomura, O. 2009. Discovery of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) (Nobel Lecture). Angewandte Chemie International Edition 48(31): 5590–5602 | Zimmer, M. 2009. GFP: From jellyfish to the Nobel prize and beyond. Chemical Society Reviews 38(10): 2823–2832.


p.98 - The latter turned out to be so popular and attractive that they’re now sold to aquarium shops by a company called Yorktown Technologies under the name of GloFish: More information about GloFish and how to ‘Experience the Glo!’ can be found here: https://www.glofish.com


p.99–100 - From a physical point of view, pigs and humans are quite the twins: Miller, J.S. 1997. Fetal Pig Dissection Guide, Including Sheep Heart, Brain and Eye. 3rd Edition. Goshen: Goshen College | Swindle, M.M., Makin, A., Herron, A.J., Clubb, F.J., and Frazier, K.S. 2011. Swine as models in biomedical research and toxicology testing. Veterinary Pathology 49(2): 344–356.


p.100 (footnote) - Most children delivered at a single birth: Guinness World Records. 2009. Most Children Delivered at a Single Birth to Survive [online] 26 January. Available at:http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/most-children-delivered-at-a-single-birth-to-survive


p.101 - Human wound-healing studies: Gou, S. and DiPietro, L.A. 2010. Factors affecting wound healing. Journal of Dental Research 89(3):219–229.


p.101 (footnote) - The most common rodents used in biomedical research: Committee on Rodents, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council. 1996. Laboratory Animal Management: Rodents. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press.


p.103 - In the US alone, 3–6 million people suffer from chronic wounds: Gou, S. and DiPietro, L.A. 2010. Factors affecting wound healing. Journal of Dental Research 89(3):219–229.


p.103 - Eccrine sweat glands in humans are found throughout the whole of our bodies: Ebling, F.J.G and Montagna, W. 2016. Human skin [online] Encyclopaedia Brittanica, Inc. Available at: https://www.britannica.com/science/human-skin.


p.104 - ‘Sweaty T-shirt study’: Wedekind, C., Seebeck, T., Bettens, F. and Paepke, A.J. 1995. MHC-dependent mate preferences in humans. Proceedings: Biological Sciences 260(1359): 245–249.


p.104 (footnote) - Pig carpal glands: Bacchetta, R., Mantecca, P., Lattuada, L., Quaglia, F., Vailati, G. and Apollonio, M. 2007. The carpal gland in wild swine: Functional evaluations. Italian Journal of Zoology 74(1): 7–12.


p.106 - Melanoma in the Syrian hamster: Vincent-Naulleau, S., Le Chalony, C., Leplat, J.-J., Bouet, S., Bailly, C., Spatz, A., Vielh, P., Avril, M.-F., Tricaud, Y., Gruand, J., Horak, V., Frelat, G. and Geffrotin, C. 2004. Clinical and histopathological characterization of cutaneous melanomas in the melanoblastoma-bearing Libechov Minipig model. Pigment Cell Research 17: 24–35.


p.107 - Sinclair and the MeLiM (melanoblastoma-bearing Libechov) mini pigs: Pathak, S., Multani, A.S., McConkey, D.J., Imam, A.S. and Amoss, M.S. 2000. Sinclair mini pig: Spontaneous regression of cutaneous melanoma in sinclair swine is associated with defective telomerase activity and extensive telomere erosion. International Journal of Oncology 17(6): 1219–1243.


p.107 (footnote) - Spontaneous regression has been observed in human malignant melanomas: Halliday, G.M., Patel, A., Hunt, M.J., Tefany, F.J. and Barnetson, R.S. 1995. Spontaneous regression of human melanoma/nonmelanoma skin cancer: Association with infiltrating CD4+ T cells. World Journal of Surgery 19(3): 352–358 | Flisikowska, T., Kind, A. and Schnieke, A. 2013. The new pig on the block: Modelling cancer in pigs. Transgenic Research 22: 673–680.


p.108 - A 2012 study by Crovara Pescia and colleagues: Crovara Pescia, A., Astolfi, P., Puglia, C., Bonina, F., Perrotta, R., Herzog, B. and Damiani, E. 2012. On the assessment of photostability of sunscreens exposed to UVA irradiation: From glass plates to pig/human skin, which is best? International Journal of Pharmaceutics 427(2): 217–223.


p.109 - Rise in popularity of pet mini pigs: Curnutte, M. 2014. The problem with mini-pigs. National Geographic [online] 1 October. Available at: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/09/140930-animals-culture-science-miniature-pigs-breeders-sanctuaries/


p.110 - More relevant to efficient biomedical research: Wang, S., Liu, Y., Fang, D. and Shi, S. 2007. The miniature pig: A useful large animal model for dental and orofacial research. Oral Diseases 13: 530–537.


p.110 - The development of the first mini pig: McAnulty, P.A., Daya, A.D., Ganderup, N-C. and Hastings, K.L. (eds). 2012. The Mini Pig in Biomedical Research. Boca Raton: CRC Press.


p.111 - A Canadian TV report: Croteau, J. and Gilligan, M. 2013. Pigs as pets? Animal shelter hopes to deter potential buyers. Global News [online] 23 December. Available at: http://globalnews.ca/news/1046788/pigs-as-pets-animal-shelter-hopes-to-deter-potential-buyers


p.111 (footnote) - Data for the Swedish Landrace and Yorkshire breeds: Reiland, S. 1978. Growth and skeletal development of the pig. Acta Radiologica Supplementum 358: 15–22.


p.112 - Valves derived from pigs; they can also be made of cow’s tissue (footnote): Hooi Yap, K., Murphy, R., Devbhandari, M. and Venkateswaran, R. 2013. Aortic valve replacement: Is porcine or bovine valve better? Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery 16: 361–374.


p.113–114 - Jacob Brubert worked on as part of his PhD in biomedical engineering at the University of Cambridge: Brubert, J. 2016. A Novel Polymeric Prosthetic Heart Valve: Design, Manufacture, and Testing. DPhil, University of Cambridge. Available at: https://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.248


p.114 - 2016 ‘ Dance your PhD ’ video competition: Brubert, J. 2016. Dance Your PhD 2016 WINNER: A polymeric prosthetic heart valve. [video online] Available at: https://www.youtube.comwatchv=3pqHVersEik&feature=youtu.be


p.114 - There are currently about 120,000 people in the US: According to data published by the United Network for Organ Sharing. Available at: https://www.unos.org/data


p.114 - 7,000 in the UK: According to data published by the NHS’s Blood and Transplant Service. Available at: https://www.organdonation.nhs.uk/supporting-my-decision/statistics-about-organ-donation


p. 115 - In the 1960s, several attempts were made to transplant kidneys from our close cousins, the chimpanzees, and those of baboons into humans: Reardon, S. 2015. New life for pig-to-human transplants. Nature 527: 152–154.


p.115 - One of these studies, published by a team at the University of Pittsburgh: Oriol, R., Ye, Y., Koren, E. and Cooper, D.K. 1993. Carbohydrate antigens of pig tissues reacting with human natural antibodies as potential targets for hyperacute vascular rejection in pig-to-man organ xenotransplantation. Transplantation 56(6): 1433–1442.


p.116 - Well, it turns out that they are: Reardon, S. 2015. New life for pig-to-human transplants. Nature 527: 152–154.


p.116 - ‘Lung factory’: Reardon, S. 2015. New life for pig-to-human transplants. Nature 527: 152–154.


p.117–118 - ‘Squealing pig’ experiment: Gross, C.G. 1998. Galen and the squealing pig. The Neuroscientist 4: 216–221.


p.119 - Cambridge University Professor Donald Broom: Broom, D.M., Sena, H. and Moynihan, K.L. 2009. Pigs learn what a mirror image represents and use it to obtain information. Animal Behaviour 78: 1037–1041.


p.120 - Twenty-eight-year-old Megan Peabody: Bloom, E. 2016. When pigs fly: Unlikely companions more common on flights. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette [online]. 17 January. Available at: http://www.post-gazette.com/pets/pet-reports/2016/01/17/When-pigs-fly-Unlikely-companions-more-common-on-flights-emotional-support-animals/stories/201601170123


p.120 - In 2013 the US Department of Transportation updated its Policy Guidance Concerning Service Animals in Air Transportation: Grinberg, E. 2014. Airline: ‘Emotional support’ pig kicked off flight for being disruptive. CNN, [online] 2 December. Available at: http://edition.cnn.com/2014/11/30/travel/emotional-support-pig-booted-flight


p.121 - Chester, a ginger piglet being raised at a miniature pig farm in Devon: Bailey-Merritt, J. 2016. Sam and Chester: How a Mischievous Pig Transformed the Life of my Autistic Son. Ealing: Bantam Press.


p.121 - Suitably tested and applied to those who will benefit from them the most: Herzog, H. 2011. The impact of pets on human health and psychological well-being: Fact, fiction, or hypothesis? Current Directions in Psychological Science 20: 236–239 | Anestis, M.D., Anestis, J.C., Zawilinksi, L.L., Hopkins, T.A. and Lilienfeld, S.O. 2014. Equine-related treatments for mental disorders lack empirical support: A systematic review of empirical investigations. Journal of Clinical Psychology 70: 1115–1132 | Crossman, M.K. and Kazdin, A.E. 2015. Additional evidence is needed to recommend acquiring a dog to families of children with autism spectrum disorder: A response to Write and colleages. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 46(1): 332–335.


p. 122–123 - Asian-inspired pork uterus with green onion and ginger (US) by Carly Morgan of Ever Clever Mom: Original recipe available at: http://everclevermom.com/2010/02/adventures-in-pork-uterus


p. 123–124: Fig-fed pork (ficatum), and wine sauce for fig-fed pork (in ficato oenogarum) (Ancient Rome): Vehling, J.D. (ed.) 1977. Apicius: Cookery and Dining in Imperial Rome. Toronto: General Publishing Company, Ltd.


p.124 - The Italian word for liver ,fegato, has nothing to do with the Latin word for liver, jecur: Clarkson, J. 2008. A fig for some liver, The Old Foodie: A Food History Story and Recipe Every Weekday of the Year [blog] 9 May. Available at: http://www.theoldfoodie.com/2008/05/fig-for-some-liver.html






p.126 - An MRI scan revealed: Sander, H.W. and Conrado Castro, M.D. 2004. Neurocysticercosis. The New England Journal of Medicine 350: 266.


p.126 - The World Health Organization (WHO): World Health Organization. 2014. 10 facts about neurocysticercosis [online]. Available at: http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/neurocysticercosis/en


p.126 – Depression, dementia…: Forlenza, O.V., Filho, A.H., Nobrega, J.P., dos Ramos Machado, L., de Barros, N.G., de Camargo, C.H. and da Silva, M.F. 1997. Psychiatric manifestations of neurocysticercosis: A study of 38 patients from a neurology clinic in Brazil. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 62(6): 612–616 |Bianchin, M.M., Dal Pizzol, A., Cabral, L. S., Martin, K. C., de Mello Rieder, C. R., de Andrade, D. C., Rodrigues, C. L., Castro, L. H. M., Machado, L. R. and Caramelli, P. 2010. Cognitive impairment and dementia in neurocysticercosis: A cross-sectional controlled study. Neurology 75(11):1288–1295 | Ramírez-Bermúdez, J., Higuera, J., Sosa, A. L., López-Meza, E., López-Gómez, M., and Corona, T. 2005. Is dementia reversible in patients with neurocysticercosis? Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 76(8):1164–1166 | Sotelo, J. 2011. Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of neurocysticercosis. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 11(6): 529–535.


p.126 - Hospital Clínica Kennedy in Guayaquil (Ecuador): Del Brutto, O.H. and Del Brutto, V.J. 2012. Calcified neurocysticercosis among patients with primary headache. Cephalalgia 32(3):250–254.


p.127 - So how does the infection happen and spread? Unknown author. nd. Taenia solium (pork tapeworm). Stanford Parasites and Pestilence Group [online] nd. Available at: http://web.stanford.edu/group/parasites/ParaSites2001/taeniasis/solium2.html


p.127–128: There are several ways in which infection can be prevented: Greger, M. 2014. Chronic headaches and pork parasites. NutritionFacts.org [online] 26 August. Available at: https://nutritionfacts.org/2014/08/26/chronic-headaches-and-pork-parasites


p.129 - Trichinosis – also known as trichinellosis: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. N.d. Parasites - Trichinellosis (also known as Trichinosis), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Parasites Home [online]. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/trichinellosis/disease.html


p.129–130 - In 1879, Italy and the then Austro-Hungarian Empire: United States Department of Agriculture. N.d. Trichinellosis (trichinosis), National Agricultural Library, Special Collections: Exhibits [online]. Available at: https://www.nal.usda.gov/exhibits/speccoll/exhibits/show/parasitic-diseases-with-econom/parasitic-diseases-with-econom/trichinosis


p.130 - Streptococcus suis: Hughes, J.M., Wilson, M.E., Wertheim, H.F.L, Trung Nghia, H.D., Taylor, W. and Schultsz, C. 2009. Streptococcus suis: An emerging human pathogen. Clinical Infectious Diseases 48(5): 617–625.


p.130–131: Oxford University Clinical Research Unit and Hanoi Medical University: Huong, V. T. L., Hoa, N.T., Horby, P., Bryant, J.E., Kinh, N.V., Toan, T.K. and Wertheim, H.F.L. 2014. Raw pig blood consumption and potential risk for Streptococcus suis infection, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases 20(11): 1895–1898.


p.131–132 - Yersinia enterocolitica: Greger, M. 2013. Bugs & drugs in pork: Yersinia & ractopamine. NutritionFacts.org [online] 25 April. Available at: https://nutritionfacts.org/2013/04/25/bugs-drugs-in-pork-yersinia-and-ractopamine


p.132 - Chitterlings/chitlins: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. N.d. Preparing chitlins safely. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [online]. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/features/preparing-chitlins-safely/index.html


p.132 - ‘Chitlin’ Circuit’: Lauterbach, P. 2011. The Chitlin' Circuit: And the Road to Rock 'n' Roll. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.


p.133 - Hepatitis E: World Health Organization. 2016. Hepatitis E fact sheet, World Health Organization Media Centre [online] July. Available at: <http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs280/en/> [Accessed on 24 September 2016] | Dalton, H.R. 2012. Hepatitis: Hepatitis E and decompensated chronic liver disease. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology 9(8): 430–432.


p.133 - Figatellu: Colson, P., Borentain, P., Queyriaux, B., Kaba, M., Moal, V., Gallian, P., Heyries, L., Raoult, D, and Gerolami, R. 2010. Pig liver sausage as a source of Hepatitis E virus transmission to humans. Journal of Infectious Diseases 202(6): 825–834.


p.133 - Trichinellosis outbreak: Ruetsch, C., Delaunay, P., Armengaud, A., Peloux-Petiot, F., Dupouy-Camet, J., Vallée, I., Polack, B., Boireau, P. and Marty, P. 2016. Inadequate labelling of pork sausages prepared in Corsica causing a trichinellosis outbreak in France. Parasite 23: 27.


p.134 - Japan: Tei, S., Kitajima, N., Takahashi, K. and Mishiro, S. 2003. Zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E virus from deer to human. The Lancet 362(9381): 371–373.


p.134 - UK: Berto, A., Martelli, F., Grierson, S. and Banks, M. 2012. Hepatitis E virus in pork food chain, United Kingdom, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases 18(8): 1358–1360 | Said, B., Ijaz, S., Chand, M.A., Kafatos, G., Tedder, R. and Morgan, D. 2014. Hepatitis E virus in England and Wales: Indigenous infection is associated with the consumption of processed pork products. Epidemiology and Infection 142(7): 1467–1475.


p.134 - One in ten had traces: Stephens, P. 2014. One in 10 sausages 'carries risk of hepatitis E virus', BBC [online] 20 November. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-30006977


p.134 - Pork cooking temperature recommendations: Cunningham, C. 2011. New USDA guidelines lower pork cooking temperature, Pork Checkoff [online] 24 May. Available at: http://www.pork.org/new-usda-guidelines-lower-pork-cooking-temperature


p.135 - Traces of ractopamine: Greger, M. 2012. Ractopamine in pork. NutritionFacts.org [online] 28 November. Available at: https://nutritionfacts.org/video/ractopamine-in-pork


p.135 - Is banned, among others, in EU countries, Russia and China: Pacelle, W. 2015. This drug, banned in Europe, Russia and China, may be in your lunch, Reuters Blogs [online] 31 March. Available at: http://blogs.reuters.com/great-debate/2015/03/30/if-you-eat-meat-in-the-united-states-buyer-beware


p.136 - A 2012 study carried out at the Department of Animal Sciences at Ohio State University: Bohrer, B.M., Kyle, J.M., Boler, D.D., Rincker, P.J., Ritter, M.J. and Carr, S.N. 2012. Meta-analysis of the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on carcass cutability and primal yields of finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 91(2): 1015–1023.


p. 137 - How figatelli are made: Preparation information and history of the sausage available at: www.figatelli.fr


p.138 - Chitterling/Chitlins (US) by Linda Stradley of What’s Cooking America: Original recipe available at: https://whatscookingamerica.net/History/ChitlinsHistory.htm






p.141–142 - Max Ferdinand Perutz: Ferry, G. 2008. Max Perutz and the Secret of Life. London: Pimlico.


p.142–144 - Myoglobin: Boles, J.A. and Pegg, R. N.D. Meat color [pdf]. Montana State University and Saskatchewan Food Product Innovation Program University of Saskatchewan. Available at: http://www.cfs.purdue.edu/fn/fn453/meat%20color.pdf | Claus, J.R. 2007. Color changes in cooked beef [pdf]. Beef Research: Beef Facts, Product Enhancement. Available at: http://www.beefresearch.org/CMDocs/BeefResearch/PE_Fact_Sheets/Color_Changes_in_Cooked_Beef.pdf | Exploratorium. N.d. What gives meat its color? The Accidental Scientist: Science of Cooking [online]. Available at: https://www.exploratorium.edu/cooking/meat/INT-what-meat-color.html


p.145 - Maillard reaction: Myhrvold, N. 2013. The Maillard Reaction, Modernist Cuisine [online]. Available at: http://modernistcuisine.com/2013/03/the-maillard-reaction | Exploratorium. N.d. What gives meat its flavor? The Accidental Scientist: Science of Cooking [online]. Available at: https://www.exploratorium.edu/cooking/meat/INT-what-makes-flavor.html


p.146 - Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: National Cancer Institute. N.d. Chemicals in meat cooked at high temperatures and cancer risk, National Cancer Institute, About Cancer: Causes and Prevention [online]. Available at: https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/diet/cooked-meats-fact-sheet


p.146–147 - US National Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School and John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health: Lin, J., Zhang, S.M., Wu, K., Willett, W.C., Fuchs, C.S. and Giovannucci, E. 2006. Flavonoid intake and colorectal cancer risk in men and women. American Journal of Epidemiology 164(7): 644–651.


p.147 - A 2012 study by researchers at the Cheng Shiu University in Taiwan: Chen, J.W., Wang, S.L., Hsieh, D.P., Yang, H.H. and Lee, H.L. 2012. Carcinogenic potencies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for back-door neighbors of restaurants with cooking emissions. The Science of the Total Environment 15: 68–75.


p.147 - Research carried out in Poland: Jedrychowski, W., Perera, F.P., Tang, D., Stigter, L., Mroz, E., Flak, E., Spengler, J., Budzyn-Mrozek, D., Kaim, I., and Jacek, R. 2012. Impact of barbecued meat consumed in pregnancy on birth outcomes accounting for personal prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Birth cohort study in Poland. Nutrition 28(4): 372–377.


p.147–148 - Research carried out by scholars at the Universities of Porto in Portugal and Vigo in Spain: Viegas, O., Yebra-Pimentel, I., Martínez-Carballo, E., Simal-Gandara, J. and Ferreira, I.M. 2014. Effect of beer marinades on formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in charcoal-grilled pork. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62(12): 2638–2643 | Viegas, O., Moreira, P.S. and Ferreira, I.M. 2015. Influence of beer marinades on the reduction of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in charcoal-grilled pork meat. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A 32(3):315–323.


p.148–149 - Marinades: López-Alt, J.K. 2015. The Food Lab: Better Home Cooking Through Science. London: W.W. Norton & Company | Exploratorium. N.d. What gives meat its flavor? The Accidental Scientist: Science of Cooking [online]. Available at: https://www.exploratorium.edu/cooking/meat/INT-what-makes-flavor.html


p.150–152 - Brining: López-Alt, J.K. 2012. The food lab: The truth about brining turkey, Serious Eats [online] November. Available at: http://www.seriouseats.com/2012/11/the-food-lab-the-truth-about-brining-turkey-thanksgiving.html


p.152 - The amount of collagen and fat: Lepetit, J. 2008. Collagen contributions to meat toughness: Theoretical aspects. Meat Science 80(4): 960–970 | McGee, H. 2007. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. Completely revised and updated. London: Scribner.


p.152–153 - Suckling pigs: López-Alt, J.K. 2011. The food lab: How to roast a whole suckling pig, Serious Eats [online] December. Available at: http://www.seriouseats.com/2011/12/the-food-lab-how-to-roast-a-whole-suckling-pig.html.


p.153–158 - Fermentation: FAO. N.d. Raw-fermented sausages, FAO Corporate Document Repository [online]. Available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/ai407e/ai407e11.htm | Toldrá, F. (ed.). 2010. Handbook of Meat Processing. Iowa: Wiley-Blackwell, in particular chapter 22: Vignolo, G., Fontana, C. and Fadda, S. Semidry and dry fermented sausages, pp. 379–389.


p.155–156 - Adenosine triphosphate (ATP): Exploratorium. N.d. What is meat?? The Accidental Scientist: Science of Cooking [online]. Available at: https://www.exploratorium.edu/cooking/meat/INT-what-is-meat.html


p.158–159 - Italy’s Parma ham: Ferrarini. N.d. Cured ham: A millenarian secret. [online] Ferrarini. Available at: http://en.ferrarini.com/ferrarini-world/cured-ham


p.158–160 - Its Ibérico counterpart: Díaz Yubero, I. 2013. Gastronomía del Cerdo Ibérico: El Mito, la Cocina… y Hasta sus Andares. Madrid: Yeguada Marqués S.L.


p.160–161 - In the case of Parma ham: Parma Ham Consortium. 2009. Aria di Parma, Parma Ham Consortium [video] 15 May. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=okgg4cQoxGA


p.162 - Beer marinated pork chops by Ashley of Kitchen Meets Girl. Original recipe available at: http://kitchenmeetsgirl.com/beer-marinated-pork-chops


p.163–164 - Cándido-style Segovia suckling pig (cochinillo asado) (Spain) by Cándido López of the Mesón de Cándido, Segovia. Original recipe available at: http://www.mesondecandido.es/blog/receta-del-cochinillo-al-horno-del-meson-de-candido





p.165–166 - Snoop Dogg: Weiner, J. 2013. The lion smokes tonight. Rolling Stone Middle East [online]. Available at: http://www.rollingstoneme.com/print/the-lion-smokes-tonight


p.166 - Rastafarianism: BBC. 2009. Rastafari at a glance, BBC Religions [online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/rastafari/ataglance/glance.shtml


p.167 - Trichinella: Pozio, E. and Murrell, K.D. 2006. Systematic and epidemiology of Trichinella. Advanced Parasitology 63: 367–439 | Schwartz, D.A. 2011. Infectious and parasitic diseases. In Rubin, R., Strayer, D.S. and Rubin, E. (eds), Rubin’s Pathology: Clinicopathologic Foundations of Medicine. 6th Edition. Baltimore and Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 329–434 | Pozio, E. and Murrell, K.D. 2006. Systematic and epidemiology of Trichinella. Advanced Parasitology 63: 367–439.


p.168 - James Paget: Blumer, G. 1939. Some remarks on the early history of trichinosis (1822–1866). Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 11(6): 581–588.


p.168 (footnote) - James Paget: O’Connor, W.J. 1988. Founders of British Physiology: A Biographical Dictionary 1820–1885. Manchester: Manchester University Press.


p.168–169: In Egypt - Pozio, E. 2007. World distribution of Trichinella spp. infections in animals and humans. Veterinary Parasitology 149: 3–21.


p.169: In 2012, the average Spaniard’s consumption - BPEX. 2013. EU per capita pig consumption. [online] Available at: http://www.bpex.org.uk/prices-facts-figures/consumption/Eupercapitapigmeatconsumption2.aspx


p.169–170: Douglas, M. 1966/2002. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concept of Pollution and Taboo. London: Routledge.


p.171–176: A 2015 publication by Professor Richard W. Redding - Redding, R.W. 2015. The pig and the chicken in the Middle East: Modeling human subsistence behavior in the archaeological record using historical and animal husbandry data. Journal of Archaeological Research 23(4): 325–368.


p.171: A kibbutz in Lahav in the southern part of the country raises pigs - Sharp, H. 2010. Israeli pig-farming kibbutz draws religious ire, BBC News [online] 30 June. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/8708541.stm


p.172: A 2011 ethnoarchaeological study of pig herding in central Sardinia by Dr Umberto Albarella of the University of Sheffield and his colleagues - Albarella, U., Manconi, F. and Trentacoste, A. 2011. A week on the plateau: Pig husbandry, mobility and resource exploitation in central Sardinia. In Albarella, U. and Trentacoste, A., Ethnozooarchaeology: The Present and Past of Human-Animal Relationships. Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp. 143–159.


p.177–178: In the Iberian Peninsula during this period - Anderson, J.M. 2002. Daily Life during the Spanish Inquisition. Santa Barbara: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.


p.178: In a 1990s study of several Latino now-Catholic families living in Arizona - Liebman Jacobs, J. 1996. Women, ritual, and secrecy: The creation of Crypto-Jewish culture. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 35(2): 97–108.


p.178–179: Appearances played a vital role in Crypto-Jewish lives - Gitlitz, D.M. and Davidson, L.K. 1999. A Drizzle of Honey: The Lives and Recipes of Spain’s Secret Jews. New York: St. Martin’s Press.


p.179–180: Legend has it that this was the case for alheira - Amaral, J.S., Santos, C.G., Melo, V.S., Oliveira, M.B.P.P. and Mafra, I. 2014. Authentication of a traditional game meat sausage (Alheira) by species-specific PCR assays to detect hare, rabbit, red deer, pork and cow meats. Food Research International 60: 140–145.


p.180: In 1917, Samuel Schwartz - Roth, C. 1992. A History of the Marranos 5th Edition. New York: Sepher-Hermon Press.


p.180: A unique type of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP) - Gerber, S., Rozet, J-M., Takezawa, S-I. et al. 2000. The photoreceptor cell-specific nuclear receptor gene (PNR) accounts for retinitis pigmentosa in the Crypto-Jews from Portugal (Marranos), survivors from the Spanish Inquisition. Human Genetics 107(3): 276–284.


p.180–181: RP is a group of inherited conditions of the retina - RP Fighting Blindness. n/d. About RP. [online]. Available at: https://www.rpfightingblindness.org.uk/index.php?tln=aboutrp


p.181: A recent study noted the high prevalence of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) among many of the Chuetas - Domingo, C., Touitou, I., Bayou, A., Ozen, S., Notarnicola, C. et al. 2000. Familial Mediterranean fever in the ‘Chuetas’ of Mallorca: A question of Jewish origin or genetic heterogeneity. European Journal of Human Genetics 8: 242–246.


p.182: It is the main component of, for example, Strattice, an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) - LifeCell. n/d. STRATTICE™ Reconstructive Tissue Matrix: The Most Clinically-Studied Biological Matrix. [online]. Available at: http://www.lifecell.com/products/stratticetm/reconstructive-tissue-matrix | International Consensus. 2010. Acellular Matrices for the Treatment of Wounds. An Expert Working Group Review. London: Wounds International.


p.183–186: This fact was highlighted by Dutch photographer Christien Meindertsma in her 2007 photography book Pig 05049 - Meindertsma, C. 2007. Pig 05049. New York: Flocks.


p.184–185: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not have a problem with it - Feiring, A. 2010. Approved wine additives. [online]. Available at: http://www.alicefeiring.com/blog/2010/11/-approved-wine-additives.html


p.185: A study on how tobacco smoke leads to oxidative damage, cancer and a range of other health troubles - Valavanidis, A., Vlachogianni, T. and Fiotakis, K. 2009. Tobacco smoke: Involvement of reactive oxygen species and stable free radicals in mechanisms of oxidative damage, carcinogenesis and synergistic eff ects with other respirable particles. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 6(2): 445–462.


p.186–187: A press release by Dr Ross MacKenzie and Professor Simon Chapman - MacKenzie, R. and Chapman S. 2011. Pig's blood in cigarette filters: How a single news release highlighted tobacco industry concealment of cigarette ingredients. Tobacco Control 20(2):169 – 172.


p.186: Things got a bit tense in July 2010 - Iran Focus. 2010. Iran report: Cigarettes implicated in Western plot, Iran Focus: News & Analysis [online] 30 July. Available at: http://iranfocus.com/en/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=21218:iran-report-cigarettes-implicated-in-western-plot&catid=4:iran-general&Itemid=109


p.188–190: Adafina (Spanish Cholent) (Sephardic Spain) - The Peppermill, Brooklyn, New York. n/d. Adafina (Spanish Cholent). [online]. Available at: http://www.thepeppermillinc.com/Browse/Product/2913/92/Adafina-Spanish-Cholent


p.188: A water-and-flour paste is used to seal the pot - Medieval Spanish Chef. 2010. Adafina with Rachel Cohen's Medieval recipe. [online]. Available at: http://www.medievalspanishchef.com/2010/10/adafina-with-rachel-cohens-medieval.html





p.193–195: Colonnata is also well known for its lardo - Dolamore, A. 2003. Jack Spratt’s horror: Lardo rediscovered, in Walker,

H. (ed.), The Fat of the Land: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cooking 2002. Bristol: Footwork, pp. 76–81. | Leitch, A. 2009. Slow food and the politics of ‘ virtuous globalization ’, in Counihan, C. and van Esterik, P. (eds), Food and Culture: A Reader. 3rd Edition. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 409–425. | Leitch, A. 2013. Slow food and the politics of pork fat: Italian food and European identity. Ethnos 68 (4): 437–462.


p.195–196: Mother Noella Marcellino - Cooked: A Netflix Documentary Series, documentary produced by Alex Gibney in collaboration with Michael Pollan, Jigsaw Productions & Netflix, USA (distributed by Netflix, 2016), colour, 60mins.


p.196–197: The 'Slow Food' organisation - Leitch, A. 2009. Slow food and the politics of ‘ virtuous globalization ’, in Counihan, C. and van Esterik, P. (eds), Food and Culture: A Reader. 3rd Edition. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 409–425. | Leitch, A. 2013. Slow food and the politics of pork fat: Italian food and European identity. Ethnos 68 (4): 437–462.


p.197–200: Ark of Taste - Slow Food in the UK. N.d. Bath Chaps | Huntingdon Fidget Pie | Lincolnshire Stuff ed Chine [online]. All available at: www.slowfood.org.uk/ff-products


p.200: In February 2014 this Scandinavian country's government - Withnall, A. 2014. Denmark bans kosher and halal slaughter as minister says ‘animal rights come before religion’ [online], Independent, 18 February. Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/denmark-bans-halal-and-kosher-slaughter-as-minister-says-animal-rights-come-before-religion-9135580.html


p.201: The sensationalist newspaper Ekstra Bladeta - Svenssson, T.G. and Rebouh, D. 2013. Børnehaver bandlyser svinekød [online], Ekstra Bladeta, 15 July. Available at: https://ekstrabladet.dk/nyheder/samfund/article4534965.ece


p.201: A clear case of human hypocrisy - Brown, A. 2014. Denmark's ritual slaughter ban says more about human hypocrisy than animal welfare [online], The Guardian, 20 February. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/andrewbrown/2014/feb/20/denmark-halal-kosha-slaughter-hypocrisy-animal-welfare


p.201: Denmark, alongside Spain and Germany - Rousseau, O. 2016. Denmark loses place as top EU pork exporter [online], Global Meat News, 24 March. Available at: https://www.globalmeatnews.com/Article/2016/03/24/Denmark-loses-place-as-top-EU-pork-exporter


p.201: 28 million pigs each year - Danish Agriculture & Food Council. n/d. Danish Pig Meat Industry [online]. Available at: http://www.agricultureandfood.dk/danish-agriculture-and-food/danish-pig-meat-industry


p.202: Marine Le Pen - Titley, G. 2014. Pork is the latest front in Europe's culture wars [online], The Guardian, 15 April. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/apr/15/le-pen-pig-whistle-politics


p.202: In Bristol - BBC. 2016. Men jailed over bacon tied to Bristol mosque door handles BBC News [online] 20 July. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-bristol-36846555


p.202: In Solihull - BBC. 2015. Pig heads dumped outside Solihull 'mosque', BBC News [online] 14 April. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-birmingham-32287545


p.203: ‘Pigs won’t fly in textbooks: OUP tells authors not to mention pork’ - Flood, A. 2015. Pigs won’t fly in textbooks: OUP tells authors not to mention pork, The Guardian [online] 14 January. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/jan/14/pigs-textbooks-oup-authors-pork-guidelines


p.203: ‘Oxford University Press bans sausages and pigs from children’s books in effort “to avoid offence”' - Strick, K. and Wilkinson, B. 2015. Oxford University Press bans sausages and pigs from children's books in effort 'to avoid offence': Bizarre clampdown branded 'nonsensical political correctness', The Daily Maily [online] 13 January. Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2908910/Oxford-University-Press-bans-sausages-pigs-children-s-books-avoid-offending-Jews-Muslims.html


p.203: OUP had to publicly respond - Harley, J. 2015. No, we haven’t banned books on pigs – but sensitivity is key in global publishing, The Guardian [online] 15 January. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/jan/15/books-pigs-global-publishing-oxford-university-press-children


p.203–204: In late 2016 the BBC - BBC. 2016. Religious leader backs drive for cartoons for Muslim children, BBC News [online] 9 December. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-australia-38218118


p.205: Different ways to use lardo by Chichi Wang of The Nasty Bits - Wang, C. 2011. The Nasty Bits: Lardo [online], The Serious Eats. Available at: https://www.seriouseats.com/2011/05/nasty-bits-lardo-cured-fat-how-to-use.html#comments-190833




p.209–210: Fidel Castro - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. n/d. The Bay of Pigs [online]. Available at: https://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/The-Bay-of-Pigs.aspx


p.210–211: The Bay's name in Spanish - Godoy, G.J. 1988. "What's In A Name?" - A Fish Called Pig! Translation Review 28(1): 33–34.


p.211–212: Queen Triggerfish - Bester, C. n/d. Queen Triggerfish - Balistes vetula [online], Florida Museum. Available at: https://www.floridamuseum.ufl.edu/fish/discover/species-profiles/balistes-vetula


p.212: Archaeological evidence - National Park Service. 2015. San Juan Island: National Historical Park - The First Ones [online]. Available at: https://www.nps.gov/sajh/learn/historyculture/the-first-ones.htm


p.212–214: The first Europeans to arrive - Coleman, E.C. 2009. The Pig War: The Most Perfect War in History. Stroud: The History Press | Vouri, M. 2013. The Pig War: Standoff at Griffin Bay. Seattle: Northwest Interpretive Association | National Park Service. 2016. San Juan Island: National Historical Park - The Pig War [online]. Available at: https://www.nps.gov/sajh/learn/historyculture/the-pig-war.htm | Kershner, J. 2013. Britain and the United States agree on the 49th parallel as the main Pacific Northwest boundary in the Treaty of Oregon on June 15, 1846 [online], History Link.org, 31 July. Available at: http://www.historylink.org/File/5247


p.214–217: One of the American settlers - Neering, R. 2011. Pig War: The Last Canada-US Border Conflict. Victoria: Heritage House Publishing.


p.217: Berkshire hogs - British Pig Association. n/d. The Berkshire - Breed History [online]. Available at: http://www.britishpigs.org.uk/breed_bk.htm


p.217: Mrs Beeton - Beeton, Isabella. 2006 (1861). Mrs Beeton's Household Management. Ware: Wordsworth Editions.


p.217: In Japan - Herbst, R. and Herbst, S.T. 2015. The Deluxe Food Lover's Companion (2nd Edition). Hauppauge, New York: Barron's Educational Series, Inc.


p.218–220: Disputes of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries - Hall, R. 2003. Serbia, in Hamilton, R.F. and Herwig, H.H. (eds), The Origins of World War I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 92–111.


p.220–221: Pigs have not only triggered human conflict - Kistler, J.M. 2011. Animals in the Military: From Hannibal's Elephants to the Dolphins of the U.S. Navy. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.


p.221: Geva Zin - Gilmore, I. 2003. Taboo or not taboo? Pigs that sniff landmines pose dilemma for Israel, The Telegraph [online] 5 October. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/israel/1443312/Taboo-or-not-taboo-Pigs-that-sniff-landmines-pose-dilemma-for-Israel.html


p.221: According to an article published in March 2000 - Rinat, O. 2016. What the Israeli military is doing to animals [online], Haaretz 19 June. Available at: https://www.haaretz.com/opinion/.premium-what-the-idf-is-doing-to-animals-1.5398034


p.222: Porton Down - Telegraph Reporters. 2016. Thousands of pigs, rabbits and monkeys mutilated at Mod's Porton Down lab, The Independent [online] 20 July. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/07/20/thousands-of-pigs-rabbits-and-monkeys-mutilated-at-mods-porton-d/


p.222: In the US in 1957 - Atomic Heritage Foundation. N.d. Operation Plumbbob – 1957 [online]. Available at: http://www.atomicheritage.org/history/operation-plumbbob-1957


p.222–223: This wasn't the first time - National Museum of Natural History Unearthed. 2011. PIG 311 – the Smithsonian and Operation Crossroads [online] 10 May. Available at: http://nmnh.typepad.com/100years/2011/05/pig-311-the-smithsonian-and-operation-crossroads.html


p.223: Black Creole Cuban pig - Velázquez, F., Barba, C., Pérez-Pineda, E. and Delgado, J.V. 1998. El cerdo negro criollo cubano: Origen, evolución y situación actual. Archivos de Zootecnia 47: 561–564.


p.224–226: Leskovacka muckalica (pork and pepper stew) by my Serbian friends Tonko and Vida Rajkovaca, adapted from Jasna’s Kitchen Creations. Available at: http://jasnaskitchencreations.blogspot.com/2014/04/leskovacka-muckalica-serbian-pork-and.html


p.224: Muckalica is a popular stew in Serbia - iFood TV. N.d. Muckalica [online]. Available at: http://ifood.tv/european/muckalica/about




p. 230 - That’s when I came across the concept of ‘carnism’: Joy, M. 2011. Why We Love Dogs, Eat Pigs, and Wear Cows: An Introduction to Carnism. Newburyport: Red Wheel/Weiser | Beyond Carnism. 2015. The Secret Reason We Eat Meat – Dr Melania Joy [video online]. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ao2GL3NAWQU | TEDx Talks. 2015. Toward Rational, Authentic Food Choices | Melanie Joy | [video online]. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o0VrZPBskpg


p.232 - The new £5 note contains traces of tallow, a rendered form of beef fat: Newkey-Burden, C. 2016. Vegans are right to be furious about beef fat in the new £5 notes. Guardian [online] 30 November. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/nov/30/vegans-furious-notes-beef-tallow-fivers.


p.233 - A practical guide which showed researchers how to handle and position specifically bred pigs when carrying out different skin experiments on them: Zeltner, A. 2013. Handling, Dosing and Training of the Göttingen Minipig [pdf]. Ellegaard educational package. Available at: <http://minipigs.dk/fileadmin/filer/Education_package_New/Handling__Dosing___Training.pdf>


p.234 - I recently learned about the Dr Hawden Trust (DHT): Since going to press the DHT has changed its name to Animal Free Research UK. You can find out more about them here: https://www.animalfreeresearchuk.org






p.239–242 – Pig breed descriptions: The Pig Site. N.d. The different breeds of pig [online]. Available at: http://www.thepigsite.com/info/swinebreeds.php and references therein.










Tempesta © Tomasso Fattovich 2017